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The Electric Power Engineering Handbook International Standard Book Number (eBook - PDF) . PART III Transmission System. The Electric Power Engineering Handbook, Second Edition, Leonard L. Grigsby 8 Concept of Energy Transmission and Distribution. George G. Karady. Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution,. Third Edition. Edited by Leonard L. Grigsby. Electric Power Transformer Engineering, Third Edition International Standard Book Number (eBook - PDF).
System Studies 2: Drawings and Diagrams 3: Substation Layouts 4: Substation Auxiliary Power Supplies 5: Current and Voltage Transformers 6: Insulators 7: Substation Building Services 8: Earthing and Bonding 9: Insulation Co-ordination Relay Protection Fuses and Miniature Circuit Breakers Cables Switchgear Power Transformers Insulator Specification 6. Tests Chapter 7. Substation Building Services 7.
Introduction 7. Lighting 7.
Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning 7. Fire Detection and Suppression 7.
Security Chapter 8. Earthing and Bonding 8. Introduction 8. Design Criteria 8.
Substation Earthing Calculations 8. Computer Simulation 8. Protective Multiple Earthing Chapter 9. Insulation Co-ordination 9.
Introduction 9. System Voltages 9.
Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering
Clearances 9. Procedures for Co-Ordination 9. Surge Protection Chapter Relay Protection Introduction System Configurations Power System Protection Principles Current Relays Differential Protection Schemes Distance Relays Auxiliary Relays Computer Assisted Grading Exercise Practical Distribution Network Case Study Fuses and Miniature Circuit Breakers Fuses Fuse Operation Miniature Circuit Breakers Chapter Cables Codes and Standards Types of Cables and Materials Cable Sizing Calculation of Losses in Cables Fire Properties of Cables Control and Communication Cables Cable Management Systems Chapter Switchgear Terminology and Standards Switching Arc Quenching Media Operating Mechanisms Equipment Specifications Chapter Power Transformers Standards and Principles Voltage, Impedance and Power Rating Thermal Design Constructional Aspects Accessories Chapter Substation and Overhead Line Foundations Soil Investigations Foundation Types Foundation Design Site Works Chapter Overhead Line Routing Routing Objectives Preliminary Routing Detailed Line Survey and Profile Chapter Structures, Towers and Poles Environmental Conditions Structure Design Pole and Tower Types Chapter Overhead Line Conductor and Technical Specifications The first long distance AC line was 34 kilometres 21 miles long, built for the International Exhibition of Turin, Italy.
The system proved the feasibility of AC electric power transmission on long distances. A few months later it was followed by the first British AC system, which was put into service at the Grosvenor Gallery , London. It also featured Siemens alternators and 2.
Transmission and Distribution Electrical Engineering (eBook, PDF)
Working from what he considered an impractical Gaulard-Gibbs design, electrical engineer William Stanley, Jr. These were induction motors running on polyphase current, independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla with Tesla's design being licensed by Westinghouse in the US.
This design was further developed into the modern practical three-phase form by Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky and Charles Eugene Lancelot Brown. These companies continued to develop AC systems but the technical difference between direct and alternating current systems would follow a much longer technical merger. These included single phase AC systems, poly-phase AC systems, low voltage incandescent lighting, high voltage arc lighting, and existing DC motors in factories and street cars.
In what was becoming a universal system, these technological differences were temporarily being bridged via the development of rotary converters and motor-generators that would allow the large number of legacy systems to be connected to the AC grid.
Westinghouse alternating current polyphase generators on display at the World's Fair in Chicago , part of their "Tesla Poly-phase System". Such polyphase innovations revolutionized transmission The first transmission of single-phase alternating current using high voltage took place in Oregon in when power was delivered from a hydroelectric plant at Willamette Falls to the city of Portland 14 miles downriver.
By , fifty-five transmission systems each operating at more than 70 kV were in service.
The highest voltage then used was kV. The most efficient available plants could be used to supply the varying loads during the day. Reliability was improved and capital investment cost was reduced, since stand-by generating capacity could be shared over many more customers and a wider geographic area.
Remote and low-cost sources of energy, such as hydroelectric power or mine-mouth coal, could be exploited to lower energy production cost. The interconnection of local generation plants and small distribution networks was greatly spurred by the requirements of World War I , with large electrical generating plants built by governments to provide power to munitions factories.
Later these generating plants were connected to supply civil loads through long-distance transmission. It also reroutes power to other transmission lines that serve local markets. This is the PacifiCorp Hale Substation, Orem, Utah , USA Engineers design transmission networks to transport the energy as efficiently as feasible, while at the same time taking into account economic factors, network safety and redundancy.
These networks use components such as power lines, cables, circuit breakers , switches and transformers.
The transmission network is usually administered on a regional basis by an entity such as a regional transmission organization or transmission system operator.
Transmission efficiency is greatly improved by devices that increase the voltage and thereby proportionately reduce the current , in the line conductors, thus allowing power to be transmitted with acceptable losses.
The reduced current flowing through the line reduces the heating losses in the conductors. According to Joule's Law , energy losses are directly proportional to the square of the current. Thus, reducing the current by a factor of two will lower the energy lost to conductor resistance by a factor of four for any given size of conductor.
The optimum size of a conductor for a given voltage and current can be estimated by Kelvin's law for conductor size , which states that the size is at its optimum when the annual cost of energy wasted in the resistance is equal to the annual capital charges of providing the conductor.
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At times of lower interest rates, Kelvin's law indicates that thicker wires are optimal; while, when metals are expensive, thinner conductors are indicated: however, power lines are designed for long-term use, so Kelvin's law has to be used in conjunction with long-term estimates of the price of copper and aluminum as well as interest rates for capital. The increase in voltage is achieved in AC circuits by using a step-up transformer.
HVDC systems require relatively costly conversion equipment which may be economically justified for particular projects such as submarine cables and longer distance high capacity point-to-point transmission.
HVDC is necessary for the import and export of energy between grid systems that are not synchronized with each other. A transmission grid is a network of power stations , transmission lines, and substations. Energy is usually transmitted within a grid with three-phase AC.
Single-phase AC is used only for distribution to end users since it is not usable for large polyphase induction motors.
Higher order phase systems require more than three wires, but deliver little or no benefit. The synchronous grids of the European Union The price of electric power station capacity is high, and electric demand is variable, so it is often cheaper to import some portion of the needed power than to generate it locally.
Because loads are often regionally correlated hot weather in the Southwest portion of the US might cause many people to use air conditioners , electric power often comes from distant sources.The Challenges to be Met by Smart Grids Differential Protection Schemes Alternatively, if generator 2 has not already been downloadd a unit with a similar inertia constant to generator 1 if practicable could be chosen.
Quality Assurance As an aid to stability auto-reclose single pole circuit breaker switching is often employed. The maximum permissible fault duration to avoid instability under these conditions is a useful guide to the correct protection settings and selection of circuit breaker characteristics used in the vicinity of generators.
Motors 2 and 3 connected to busbar 5 will decelerate to a standstill due to loss of supply as will all motors connected to busbar 4. On-site generation and a major hp induction motor are connected to busbar No. Because of this phenomenon, conductors must be periodically transposed along the length of the transmission line so that each phase sees equal time in each relative position to balance out the mutual inductance seen by all three phases.